Ecology of the Florida Manatee Essay

Ecology of the Florida Manatee

(Trichechus manatus latirostris)


This paper examines the energy refuges, effects of coastal thunder storms and wintertime aggregation habit on the Fl manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). The Fl manatee is a subspecies in the West American indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus) commonly found in the subtropical marine environments of the southeastern United States, feeding on marine grass and freshwater plants. Unlike many marine family pets that hinder large open water areas, manatees typically occupy filter shaped lakes such as canals, rivers and creeks (Edwards et 's. 2007). They can be considered one of the most endangered underwater mammals in US marine environments due to their little population and threats with their habitats (Garrott et ing. 1994). Water activies collisions, hard storms, and contact with cold seas can enhance their mortality rates. Manatees frequently acquire exclusive marks in the wild via natural and human-related causes. Boat ?nduced injuries, angling line entanglements, and lesions from illness and chilly damage can leave long term scars as soon as they heal (Langtimm and Beck 2003). These kinds of mammals could also starve and die of cachexia, the wasting away of excess fat from lack of food inside the stomach (O'Shea et ing. 1985). Sub-adults are more likely to suffer greater mortality rates than calves and older manatees due to their curiosity, dispersal to new refuge, and unfamiliarity with spots of cold weather refuges. Lower legs usually stay close to their mothers and are also at less risk of perishing during a surprise or winter weather. Aerial surveys have been useful to estimate manatee populations. Despite the fact that manatees are protected below many regulations, further research is needed in order to increase manatee populations and minimize mortality rates.

Energy Refuges

During cold intervals, primarily Nov through Drive, manatees migrate to the warmer water of South Fl known as heat refuges. Thermal refuges can be natural or man-made; their main function is to shield manatees via cold drinking water stresses during the winter months (Buckingham et 's. 1999). The largest natural cold weather refuge for manatees can be found in Kings Gulf, which is positioned in Crystal Lake, Florida (Hartmann 1979, Powell and Rathbun 1984). Various people prefer to visit throughout the winter intended for recreational factors and also to get the opportunity to interact with these large, gentle pets or animals. Some manatees become inquisitive and way people while many others dismiss or prevent human interest. Aerial studies were executed to compare the number of manatees with different liveliness and showed that manatees continue to use cold weather refuges no matter on numbers of recreational activity (Buckingham 1999). As motorboat activity boosts, manatees are more inclined to exhibit elimination of individuals. United States Seafood and creatures established manatee sanctuaries and protection serves to prevent harassment of manatees.

High Surveys in Winter Aggregation Locations

Manatees mixture in tepid to warm water near electricity plants and natural suspension systems in winter several weeks. Power plant facilities provide heat heat, making the surrounding seas a suitable sanctuary for manatees. Aerial studies that cover manatee habitat in small identified areas, such as winter assimilation sites, had been useful in obtaining manatee populace counts (Packard et 's. 1989). Nevertheless , some current aerial review methods do not provide correct population quotes. There are many road blocks that can obstruct the counting of an person manatee and must be regarded before performing aerial is important or even saving an individual (Marsh and Sinclair 1989; Lefebvre et approach. 1995; Pollock et ing. 2004, 2006). When manatees aggregate in warm water sites, they may snooze on the bottom for about 20 minutes. Water interesting depth and normal water clarity need to be taken into consideration when enumerating and identifying these marine pets or animals (Edwards 2007).

Cloudwoven surveys were recorded near the Tampa Electric powered...

Cited: Buckingham CA, Lefebvre LW, Schaefer JM, Kochman HI. 1999. Manatee respond to boating activity in a energy refuge. Crazy Soc Half truths. [Internet]. [cited 2013 February 28]#@@#@!!; 27 (2): 514-522. Available from:

Edwards YOU DO NOT NEED :, Pollock KH, Ackerman BB, Reynolds III JE, Powell JA. 2007. Estimation of Detection Likelihood in Manatee Aerial Research at a Winter Assimilation Site. M Wildl Manage. [Internet]. [cited 2013 February 28]#@@#@!!; 71 (6): 2052-2060. Readily available from:

Garrott RA, Ackerman BB, Cary JUNIOR, Heisey DM, Reynolds JOU III, Increased PM, Wilcox JR. year 1994. Trends in counts of Florida manatees at winter months aggregation sites. J of Wild Mtg. [Internet]. [cited 2013 Feb 28]; fifty nine (4): 642-654. Available by:

Langtimm FLORIDA, Beck CA. 2003. Lower survival probabilities for mature Florida manatees in years with strong coastal storms. Ecol Appl. [Internet]. [cited 2013 Feb 28]#@@#@!!; 13 (1): 257-268. Offered from:

O'Shea UBITI, Beck CALIFORNIA, Bonde RK, Kochman HELLO THERE, Odell DK. 1985. A great analysis of manatee fatality patterns in Florida, 1976-81. J Untamed Manage. [Internet]. [cited 2013 Feb 28]; 49 (1): 1-11. Readily available from:

Packard JM, Frohlich RK, Reynolds III JE, Wilcox JR. 1989. Manatee respond to interruption of any thermal fertilizer. J Wildl Manage. [Internet]. [cited 2013 Feb 28]#@@#@!!; 53 (3): 692-700. Available type:


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